General Information


The Russian Federation is located in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia.


17125191 km2 within land borders of 20322 km in length, and marine borders of 38000 km.


Approximately 148 million (2017). Russians constitute 81.5%, and there are other population groups constitute more than 1 million - of a total of 160 different ethnicities - namely: Tatars (3.9%), Ukrainians (1.4%), Bashkiris (1.1), Chuvash (1%), Chechnya (1%) and Armenians (0.9%).


Russia experienced a shift from paganism to Christianity through the embrace of Prince Vladimir I. to Christianity where he made it the official religion of Kiev Russians in 988. Orthodox Christianity is the most traditional and most widespread religion in Russia and is part of Russia's "historical heritage". Islam, Buddhism and Judaism are also considered traditional religions in Russia and part of the "historical heritage" of Russia according to the law of 1997. However, the Russian Orthodoxy is the predominant religion in the country; around 108 million Russian citizens consider themselves Orthodox Christians(75%), Muslims are about 7.3 million (5%), other denominations: Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Buddhist about 1.5 million (1%) and those who do not profess any religion about 11.5 million citizens (8%).


The Capital

Moscow As mentioned in the historical books and manuscripts, Moscow dates back to 1147 when it was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgruki. It is one of the largest Russian cities in terms of area and population (approximately 12.5 million). Moscow is located in the European part of Russia between the Volga and Oki rivers, and is interspersed by dozens of small rivers, including Sokhodnia, Khimki, Brescia, Yaoza, Nishinka and Nigelinia. It has an area of 2511 square kilometers. It is surrounded by a ring road which comprises one-third of its current area where new and modern neighbourhoods are situated on its sides. Moscow has a volatile atmosphere climate, where the temperature sometimes reaches 30 below zero and perhaps more. In summer, the temperature is mild at 33 degrees, but winter is long and lasts for about six months. Moscow is one of the most important centers for economy and production in Russia. It is a prestigious financial center where headquarters of Russia's largest banks and oil and gas companies are located. It includes all the ministries and major government bodies except the Constitutional Court, which was moved to St. Petersburg in 2013. The city has a wide network of land and river transportation, with eight train stations boasting its beauty and architecture, as well as the subway, which is a masterpiece that has more than 200 stations. This subway serves about five million passengers a day. Moscow is connected to the world by three giant airports: Fenokova, Domodedova and Cherimotova. 

Islam and the most prominent Islamic landmarks in Moscow


The population of Muslims today in Moscow according to various estimations is about 3 million. Among the city's 160 ethnicities, 30 are age-long Muslims. Moscow, at the beginning of the 21stcentury, is considered to be the largest city in Russia in terms of the Muslim population of over a million people who have ethnic and spritial connection to Islam.


The first mosque in Moscow goes back to various dates according to various sources, some of which refer to the 16th century, while others to the 18th century (1782). The first documentation of a mosque in Moscow goes back to 1712, and the oldest mosque is the one in the suburb of Zamoscvorice, beyond the Moscow River, which was inhabited by Tatars princes, merchants, and ordinary workers.


The first mosque in Moscow was built of wood and was located in the courtyard of the house of the translator of the department of foreign affairs which was headed by prince Sulammit-MorzaSimneh. The plague of Moscow in the 1770s killed most of those who used to pray in this mosque, including the prince himself. His heir sold the house to the merchant Shokin, and the mosque, which had become very old, was removed and congregation prayers were performed in the houses of local merchants.


The mosques in Moscow include:

- Moscow Cathedral Mosque or Moscow congregation mosque, known as Moscow grand mosque. It is the main and largest mosque in Moscow and Europe. It accommodates 10,000 worshipers at one time, and is located in the center of the city near the metro station Prospect Mira.

Adress: Russia, 129090, Moscow, VypolzovPereulok, page 7-Tel: +7 (495) 6814904


- Memorial Mosque: Known as the Bakoluni Gori Mosque, this mosque was opened in 1997 at a sacred place for the Russians, the Balkonaya Gora (Prostration Mount), in commemoration of the Muslim martyrs of the Second World War. It is located to the southwest of the city center on Minsk Street, near Victory Park, the nearst metro station.

Address: The Memorial Mosque on Poklonnaya Hill, Russia, 121096, Moscow, Minskaya street, 2b8Tel: +7 (495) 449-81-13


- The "Historical" Mosque: A permit was granted for the construction of this mosque in 1832. For the license, the Muscovite authorities stipulated that "the building should not take the shape of a mosque, nor be called a mosque." It was similar in appearance to a plain one-story civilian building with a minaret-like projection above the entrance. Located in Vibelzov alley, it took its full shape as a Muslim place of worship in 1880, and throughout the 19th century it was known s a congregation mosque. In 1904 it was rebuilt was called the congregation mosque ever since thoughout the twentieth century.

Address: Historical Mosque Charitable Foundation, Russia, 115184, Moscow, Bol. Tatarskaya street 28, Tel: +7 (495) 951-17-81.

- Yardyam Mosque: Known as the double-minaret mosque, this mosque was opened in 1997 as the first Islamic worship place to be built in the capital in the last 90 years. It can accommodate 1200 worshippers.

Address: Yardyam Mosque or Mechet' Yardyam, Russia, 127562, Moscow, Khachaturian street, 8k4, metro stations: Vladykino Otradnoe, Tel: +7  (499) 903-60-88


Quibla direction


Longitude and latitude

Geographical Information

Russia represents a bridge between the continents of Europe and Asia. It is bordered from the east by the Bahrang Sea, the Sea of ​​Ahutsk and the Sea of ​​Japan, separating it from the Pacific Ocean. From the west, it is bordered by Belarus, Latvia, Estonia, the Gulf of Finland and Norway, while the Russian province of Kaliningrad lies between Lithuania and Poland. From the north it is bordered by Barents Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptiv Sea, the Sea of ​​East Siberia and the Chokotka Sea, all of which source from the Archetic Ocean. To the south there are China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia and the Black Sea, while from the south-east it is bordered by North Korea. This explains the strategic location of Russia, the largest country in the world, that stretches to about 10,000 km from west to east and covers more than one nineth the areas of the world. Russia is divided into the following three regions:

The European Part of Russia is located to the west of the Ural Mountains and Siberia, which extends east from the Ural Mountains to the far east, far south east of Russia and the Pacific coast.

Lakes: Russia borders the Caspian Sea, which is the largest salt lake in the world. Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake (1620 meters) with 20 percent of the world's freshwater reserves (23,000 km3), lies entirely inside the russian territories. It is 636 km long and 48 km wide.

Rivers: Rivers abound in Russia and the largest of them include Lena, Yenisei, Op, Amor, Tarshish. The most famous of them is Volga River, the longest river in Europe.

Seas: Russia borders many seas, and has many ports on the Baltic Sea and Barents Sea in the north, the Black Sea in the south, and also in the Pacific region of Vladivostok near Japan.

Climate: The climate in Russia varies greatly due to its vast area. It is mild in the summer, with temperatures ranging from 1 to 30, and cold in autumn. In  winter, it has a harsh cold, with temperatures ranging from 0 to -50 ° C. The northern and arctic regions are characterized by long and cold winters and short and relatively cold summers, while reas of Moscow and St. Petersburg have a mild continental climate.

Natural Resources: Russia has many natural resources including oil, natural gas, iron, nickel, diamonds, phosphates, silver, lead, gold and timber.

Economy and Investment

The Russian economy relies mainly on the export of raw materials, especially oil and gas, to the countries of the European Union, China and Japan. The share of oil and gas exports in the total Russian exports value is currently about 70%, while the share of other raw materials in total exports value is about 90%. The Russian economy relies on the import of 55% of its requirements for technology from Western countries.

In light of the Western sanctions and the economic blockade, great investment opportunities appeared in Russia, especially in the field of oil, gas, real estate, construction, agriculture, industry, trade and tourism.

Cooperation in Business and Investments

The State of Qatar has several multi-billion dollars investments in Russia in the field of industry, real estate, banking and energy, foremost the purchase of Qatar Investment Authority and the commodities trader Glencore International Company a stake in the state-owned oil major Rosneft.

The Russian-Qatari Business Council and the chambers of commerce and industry in both countries play a positive role in launching economic and investment projects in Russia and Qatar.

The Society

Social Composition: After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the private sector became dominant in its large, medium and small sectors, and a new social class of oligarchs emerged. The class of workers and peasants has largely disappeared, and Russia, in social terms, became similar to capitalist states with a different nature of the economic and social system. As a result of the emergence of the new economic market relations, the attractiveness of trade, finance, banking, administrative, legal and other businesses has increased.

Culture and Heritage

Russian culture is characterized by its originality. It began with the emergence of the first Russian emirate in Moscow, to grow considerably encouraged by Tsar Peter the Great and Empress Yekaterina. Emperor Peter the Great was the builder of the modern Russian state (18th century), opening a window on the European Renaissance by establishing the city of Petersburg. The second Empress Nkaterina followed the footsteps of Caesar Peter the Great. She cared for the Arabic language and ordered it be taught for the first time in some universities and high schools. The Russian literature was famous in the nineteenth century AD, and Russian writers such as Pushkin, Tolstoy, Chekhov, Dostoevsky, Lermantov and Torgeniev produced litrary works that were translated to most languages ​​of the world, and some of these works were influenced by the Arab and Islamic culture. 

In most countries of the world, Russia has cultural centers that help to spread the Russian culture and language and contribute to exchanges with other cultures of the world. In each city or town of Russia there are one or more museums that aim to introduce culture and art to the public.The most important of these include:

  • The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg City: It is one of the most famous museums in the world and contains more than 3 million art collections showing the world's cultural and artistic development from the Stone Age to date.
  • Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow (Russian National Art Museum): The museum contains about 130,000 Russian paintings and works of art.
  • Museum of the Arts of the Eastern Peoples in Moscow: It contains 160 thousand pieces of unique pieces and works of art.
  • The Russian Kremlin Museum in Moscow: It is characterized by its unique construction, with its huge walls and vaulted golden towers.
  • Pushkin Museum of Art in Moscow: It is rich in paintings of the world's most illustrious painters

Russian culture is not limited to fine arts and rich literary heritage. There are music from (Tchaikovsky, Glinka, Rimsky, Korsakov, Rachmaninov, Prokofiev and others) and other areas such as architecture, theater, cinema etc.

People and Politics

The Russian Federation is a federal state with a presidential system of government. The president is elected directly by the people for six years and may be re-elected only once for a second term.

The President of the Republic is the head of the state and the prime minister is the head of the govrnment. Th federal government has three powers:

  • Legislative: The State Duma (450 members) and the Federal Council (166 members).
  • Executive: The President of the Republic is the supreme commander of the armed forces, has the right to veto legislative bills before they become enforceable laws, and he/she appoints the Council of Ministers.
  • Judiciary: The Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Supreme Court of Arbitration, and lower federal courts.